Posts Tagged ‘Nuclear’

In September 2000 the Department of Health legislated regulations in respect of the fluoridation of potable water in South Africa. The regulation indicated that water service providers are obliged to fluoridate water to a concentration level of up to 0.7 mg F/litre as of September 2002. This legislation was initiated in a bid to stop tooth decay, especially in young children despite the fact that there remains little evidence proving that fluoride in water minimizes tooth decay. Some consider this act as being unconstitutional because consumers of water in the population are not consulted in this matter and the resulting accusations are that of forced medication.

Fluoride is used as an insect and cockroach killer. As little as one-tenth of an ounce of fluoride will cause death. It is more poisonous than lead and just slightly less poisonous than arsenic. A glass of fluoridated water will not cause immediate death but concerns rest in the long term effects of the chemical on the body. An increase in fluoride levels in the tissues and organs of the body results in a wide range of chronic diseases. Birth defects, genetic damage and cancer are the most worrying long term effects of fluoride. Other effects include the aggravation of kidney disease, diabetes and hypothyroidism. Multiple scientific studies have proved the link between increases in the concentration of fluoride and carcinogenic tumour growth. A study in 1975 based around millions of subjects revealed a 5 to 10% increase in cancer death rate within three to five years after fluoridation was put into the water.  Ten years later, Proctor and Gamble, makers of Crest toothpaste found that fluoride was causing precarcinogenic changes in cells.

Substances like fluoride which cause genetic damage are called mutagenic substances and it is a well-accepted fact that substances which are mutagenic also tend to be carcinogenic, or cancer producing.  In fact, this is exactly what has been found with regard to fluoride.

During World War II hundreds of thousands of innocents were exterminated in concentration camps in Russia and Germany. Nazi scientists keen on controlling the behaviour of camp inmates experimented with fluoride.  Repeated doses of very small amounts of fluoride were discovered to affect the brain, slowly poisoning and narcotizing people, making them submissive.  Eager to exploit the effects of the drug, both German and Russian camp commanders added fluoride to water supplies. The German chemical manufacturing giant I.G. Farben became responsible for mass producing fluoride for the death camps and other possible future uses. Today over 60 tranquilizers on the market contain fluoride. Strong tranquilizers like Rohypnol and Stelazine are highly fluoridated and like the majority of brands in the market they are produced by I.G. Farben and its subsidiaries (Roche products being one of them).

American soldiers entering Germany at the end of the war made the liberating of prisoners of war at concentration camps a priority. At camp after camp, they found stockpiles of fluoride stored near the water supply. When they asked what the fluoride was used for, they were told that the Nazi Germans used the substance as an additive to the prisoner’s water, to make them docile. This is the first known incidence of intentionally fluoridating drinking water.

Fluoride is an industrial waste product, a by-product of the aluminum industry and the phosphate fertilizer companies. Historically, this substance was quite expensive for chemical companies to dispose of. They had vast amounts of the by-product and they had to get rid of it, the companies decided to do this by convincing governments of the benefits of diluting the waste inside our water.

The dangers of fluoride inhalation are exhibited by people living in the vicinity of aluminum, phosphate, steel, clay, glass and enamel plants who are exposed to high levels of fluoride in the air. These areas show extremely high lung cancer rates that decrease as you get away from the downwind plume of the steel mills. If fluoride was left with the phosphate and sold to farmers, it would kill their crops.

The Pelindaba nuclear/chemical complex, is set to become the major supplier of hundreds of tons of fluoride which will be added to drinking water throughout the country from next year. What is even more intriguing is that this specific nuclear/chemical complex was set up by the apartheid government in the 1960s to produce atomic bombs and enriched uranium fuel.

In addition to these shocking facts it has been further discovered by fluoride researcher Ian E. Stephens that Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher tripled the water-fluoridation budget in Northern Ireland during the mid 80’s. Stephens speculated that this was not motivated by concern for dental health, but an attempt to pacify political activists in the area. It is no secret that Thatcher opposed sanctions on apartheid South Africa and publicly condemned ANC members as terrorists.

During the past 10 years South African water boards and Rand Water specifically have been making submissions to government ministries. These submissions center around acquiring indemnity from the Department of Health against any claims arising from the fluoridation of water giving rise to possible health implications on individuals or impact on the environment. The Department of Health has responded that any claims regarding possible health implications or impact on the environment on industrial water users must be made against the Minister of Health. In this way the water boards will not be found liable should any claims arise from the fluoridated water.

The majority of countries in the world have objected to the fluoridation of their water. Many European countries have spearheaded powerful campaigns curtailing and ending government implementation of fluoridated water.  Among developed countries, the United States of America remains one of the last countries still allowing the fluoridation of their water supply. In addition to the numerous scholars who object to water fluoridation, 14 Nobel Prize winners who were awarded Nobel prizes, some in Chemistry and others in Medicine, have objected to fluoridation. 

The public is uneducated in terms of this issue. For what other reason would the population be quiet when they are being fed rat/cockroach poison in their water? The multiple chronic diseases and adverse long-term effects associated with fluoride should be enough to create uproar against the implementing of the substance in potable water. Levels in rural areas have been found to be far above what is considered a safe level. How will the increased acidity already identified in the water, mix with the toxic fluoride, and what will be the consequence for those who drink it?

Not only has fluoride been confirmed as being linked to cancer but it also mutates genetic structure. Even more disturbing is the fact that fluoride was one of the most used chemicals by Nazi Germany who used the chemical to subdue prisoners in concentration camps by putting it into the drinking water. This is compounded by the discovery that the Pelindaba nuclear/chemical complex set up by the apartheid government will be supplying us with our fluoride. The company Pelchem, located in Pelindaba, stands to boost its annual revenue of about R130 million by at least 10% if it corners the local water fluoridation market.

Why have South African water boards been so adamant about acquiring indemnity from health and environmental impacts relating to fluoride? This surely posits as evidence that they are aware that fluoride is not a safe substance for human ingestion. It is unusual for a government to agree to carry the liabilities of a company. Yet, in this instance this is the case. What are the motivations behind government’s strong support for the fluoridation of South Africa’s water? Even prestigious Nobel Prize winners have stood up against it. Do these doctors, chemists and scientists not carry enough authority to dissuade us away from this mass poisoning? If they cannot convince us, who can?….

When you think of nuclear weapons, you probably think of America, Russia, China or Iran. But you might be shocked to discover that South Africa had its very own secret nuclear programme that was developed during apartheid.

While sources disagree about the exact date that the Apartheid Government initiated their nuclear arms programme, many believe that the decision “develop a limited nuclear deterrent capabilities” can be traced back to as as early as 1974.

In order to achieve this goal, the government stepped up the production at their uranium enrichment plant at Valindaba, known as the “Y-plant”. Numerous nuclear tests were also performed at the Somerset West explosives installation near Cape Town.
While the Apartheid Government’s activities during the 70’s were mainly secret, their actions did alarm leaders in the Soviet Union and the U.S. The Soviets allegedly considered a pre-emptive strike on the Y-plant, an option that U.S. officials reportedly rejected.
In 1977, South Africa successfully managed first full-scale nuclear explosive device based on a gun-type design.

According to reports, a U.S. Vela surveillance satellite detected a distinct light event off of Africa’s southern coast in 1979. U.S. officials believed that the source of the light was a nuclear test performed by the Apartheid Government, producing an intense double flash of light. The Apartheid Government denied all knowledge of the event. Later, representatives from the government stated that South Africa could not have been responsible for the double flash as it did not possess a complete nuclear device until November 1979.

According to reports, the Apartheid Government managed to produce a total of six nuclear devices by the 1980’s. The Apartheid Government was able to do so by mastering the uranium production and enrichment process in order to develop a complete nuclear fuel cycle with advanced waste management techniques.

But while South Africa was able to produce a number of nuclear weapons, by the late 1980’s, the Apartheid Government was facing incredible political pressure, both locally and abroad.

One of the government’s strongest bargaining chips was the ability to negotiate with regards to their nuclear weapons programme. Under great international pressure, South Africa begun nuclear disarmament in 1989.

What happened to all of South Africa’s nuclear scientists? Where did they go and what have they been doing for the past twenty years? Some might be driven by money, some by ideology…but it’s hard to imagine that they have been sitting around twiddling their thumbs…There must be plenty of rouge nations or extremist groups that would the skills that only nuclear scientists could provide. Could nuclear experiments still be secretly going on in South Africa?

What do you think?

For a more detailed overview of South Africa’s secret nuclear history, click here

For more information about the South Africa’s disarmament process, click here

The following post contains information from The South African Chemical and Biological Warefare Program: An Overview, by Chandré Gould and Peter I. Folb.

Project Coast was a top secret Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) program initiated by the Apartheid government during the 1980’s. But what was the purpose of the program?

South African Defence Force officials have repeatedly stated that the South African CBW program was established to counter a threat of chemical weapons being used against their troops during the conflict in Angola, which lasted from the mid-1970s to the end of the 1980s.

South Africa invaded Angola in 1975 in an attempt to disrupt Angolan independence but could not contend with large Cuban forces acting in support of the Popular Movement of the Liberation of Angola.

According to reports, South African troops found a Cuban military vehicle fitted with air filters as well as medical bags containing gas masks.  Project manager and surgeon general, General Daniel Knobel insisted that the threat against South Africa was so great that the nation had to defend itself at all costs, even if it meant buying items on the black market or “stealing the technology.”

Through out the 1970s and 1980s, the policies of the Apartheid government led to increasingly overcrowded environments, poor economic growth and discriminatory educational systems. Tensions erupted in 1976 during the Soweto Riots. This resulted in the government forcing the military to seek “alternative crowd control agents.”

When PW Botha was elected as Prime Minister in 1978, he brought with him a National Management System. When Botha was presented with the various “security issues” facing the country, he commissioned a team to investigate the feasibility to develop a CBW program to defend the state from its enemies. This program was code-named “Project Coast”.

It’s less than a day since the launch of Secret South Africa and a massive story is breaking beneath Johannesburg.

Joburg woke up today, only to find that millions of litres of highly acidic mine water is rising up under the city, and  if left unchecked, could spill out into the streets in less than 18 months. If the acid water rose to the surface, it could pose a serious threat to the city’s inhabitants, its buildings and the surrounding environment.

Currently the acid water is situated about 600m below the city’s surface, but it is rising at a rate of between 0.6 and 0.9m a day.

The acid water is formed when it oxidises with the sulphide mineral iron pyrite, better known as fool’s gold, and tarts to seep into the surrounding ground.

In 2002, acid mine drainage started decanting from the Western Basin, located below the Krugersdorp-Randfontein area. The outflow grew worse earlier this year after heavy rains. When government attempted to neutralise the acid water by pouring tons of lime into the Tweelopies Spruit, a thick sludge was formed in the water.

The problem of acid water is not new. According to Leadership, Joburg’s Western Basin was flooded in 2002 and 2005 by acid mine water and that transformed the Tweelopiespruit into a class-5 toxic river. The Robinson Lake became a radioactive dam with uranium levels of 40 000 above background or natural uranium levels.

According to The Times, many RDP houses are being erected next to radioactive dumps. Many of Gauteng’s poorer communities live alongside, or on top of, land contaminated by mining activities. These people are exposed to high concentrations of cobalt, zinc, arsenic, and cadmium, all known carcinogens, as well as high levels of radioactive uranium.

This makes you wonder. How safe is South Africa’s water supply and how easily could it be compromised?

Is Johannesburg’s acid water problem merely the result of bad management? Or maybe the real reason is something completely different…

We should be worried that our mines are have been producing radioactive material for nearly ten years. And we should be even more worried that the government has done little to rectify the situation.

What is really happening behind the scenes?

What do you think?